Processed Fuels PDF Print E-mail

Processed fuels have been treated to remove contaminants and water as well as control the heat content and molecular structure of the fuel. Different types of processed fuels that will combust in a micro turbine include Utility Gas, LP, LPG, Diesel Fuel and Bio Diesel Fuel.

Utility Gas, Pipeline or Methane: Utility gas is pure methane (CH4) of consistent heat rate between 850 and 1,100 BTU/CF: contaminants and water have been filtered out of the gas. Applying micro turbine-based CHP to commercial buildings utilizing utility pipeline methane gas is Preon’s largest market niche. Hotels, police stations, data centers, hospitals and residential high rises represent very efficient application of CHP since the waste heat can be directly converted to 7 x 24 heating and/or cooling. Many industrial/manufacturing facilities also can utilize the waste heat from their manufacturing/business processes. In the heating season, the waste energy is converted to pre-boiler or steam generator energy. In the cooling season, the waste energy is converted to cooling via absorption chillers. Double-effect chillers can be utilized to provide both heating and cooling at the same time. Historically, natural gas prices were subject to speculators and demand. However, the long range forecast of US natural gas supplies has actually increased by 35% - the first time gas supplies have increased in 44 years. This was due to the inclusion of shale gas in national reserves. Previously it was believed that shale gas at 4,500 feet below the surface was not economically viable but the advancement of technology has made that a moot point. Preon believes that economical and reliable natural gas will be the energy source of preference for many commercial and industrial users.

 

LP or Liquid Propane: LP is commonly accepted to be pure propane or C3H8. The heating value of pure propane is 2516 BTU/CF. However, moisture and methane can reduce the actual heating value to 1,100 BTU/CF. LP is often used where there is a need for reliable and clean-burning fuel in the absence of a utility gas grid. Propane is the result of refining crude oil or it is separated from wellhead gas. Like methane, propane also be the result of the natural decay of organic compoungs.

 

LPG or Liquid Petroleum Gas: LPG is predominantly propane and butane (C4H10) but other saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons are also included: ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H2), propylene (C3H6), butane (C4H10), butylenes (C4H8) and pentane (C5H12). LPG is processes by the cracking or distilling of crude oil. The heat rate of LPG can range between 2,400 and 3,100 BTU/CF.

 

Diesel Fuel: Is the liquid fuel that is refined from crude oil after the higher volatility gasoline is removed. Diesel fuel is less expensive than gasoline since it requires less refining. The BTU content of diesel fuel is rated at 130,500 BTU/Gal. This compares with 92,300 BTU/Gal for propane.

 

Bio Diesel Fuel: Feedstock oils are mixed with sodium hydroxide and methanol: a chemical reaction creates biodiesel and glycerol. Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapeseed, jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, pongamia pinnata and algae. Pure biodiesel (B100) is by far the lowest emission diesel fuel. Pure biodiesel (B100) is by far the lowest emission diesel fuel. Biodiesel can be used in any diesel engine when mixed with mineral diesel. The majority of vehicle manufacturers limit their recommendations to 15% biodiesel blended with mineral diesel. Biodiesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about 300 F (148 C) compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125 F (52 C).